The Antidepressant-Like and Analgesic Effects of Kratom

Kratom employed as a traditional medicine to improve mood and relieve pain, has shown increased use in Europe and North America. Here, the dose-dependent effects of a purified alkaloid kratom extract on neuronal oscillatory systems function, analgesia, and antidepressant-like behaviour were evaluated and kratom-induced changes in ΔFosB expression determined